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Océanographie / Oceanography

Credits : 3 ECTS
Head / Responsable pédagogique : Sylvain Pichat
Types d'enseignement / Teaching : lectures and practicals (CM and TD)
Intervenants / Lecturers: Sylvain Pichat, Achim Wirth, Guillemette Ménot
 

Contenus du cours

The main goals of this class is to review fundamental notions in ocean circulations, ocean chemistry and physical oceanography. The links with past climates and climate change will also be reviewed.
 
Les objectifs de ce cours sont d'aborder les fondamentaux de la dynamique des océans, les moteurs de la circulation océanique, ses impacts sur la chimie et la biologie. Les liens entre climat et océans seront également abordés.
 
More precisely, the following topics will be treated:
Plus précisément les élements suivants seront traités:
  • Main parameters of ocean chemistry and physics - Paramètres chimiques et physiques des océans - répartition en profondeur et spatialement
  • In-situ and remore measurements - Mesures de ces paramètres in-situ et remote
  • Links between atmospheric and ocean circulations, Ekman transport, Coriolis force, Sverdrup theory, western-boundary currents - Liens entre les circulations atmosphériques et océaniques, transport d'Ekman, force de Coriolis, théorie de Sverdrup, Gulf Stream et courants de bordures ouest
  • Géneral ocean circulation: formation, tracers (T-S, 14C, CFCs, nuclear tests from the 60's...), Stommel model  -  Circulation océanique générale: formation des masses d'eaux profondes et traceurs (T-S, 14C, CFC, produits des essais nucléaires des années 60...), modèle de Stommel

Circulation_generale_Oceanique.jpg

  • Ocean chemistry, effect on the spatial concentration of chemical elements, links with the biological activity   -  Chimie des océans: impact des circulations sur les éléments chimiques, liens avec l'activité biologique (nutriments, flux de particles)
  • Quaternary changes of the ocean circulation and impacts on climate. A few examples will be given through paleoproxies such as (δ13C, 231Pa/230Th, εNd...)  -  Variations des circulations océaniques pendant le Quaternaire, impact sur le climat. Méthodes pour documenter les variations passées (δ13C, 231Pa/230Th, εNd...).

PaTh_Lippold_etal_NatureGeo_2012.jpg

(Lippold et al., Nature Geo., 2012)

 

Connaissances acquises

Fondamentaux en océanographie pour océanographes, paléoclimatogues, géophysiciens de la dynamique des fluides, géochimistes et biogéochimistes

 

Notation / marking

50% examen final + 50% présentation orale et CC

50% final exam + 50% oral presentation and exams during the lectures

 

 

Supports de cours 2020-2021

Lectures (Sylvain Pichat):

  • Lecture 01 (13 Jan. 2021): Introduction to oceanography. Lecture video (passwd required) and R/V Eugen Seibold video (free access)
  • Lecture 02 (19 Jan. 2021): Physical parameters. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 03 (20 Jan. 2021): Instrumentation and measurements. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • T-S diagram practical correction video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 04 (20 Jan. 2021): Deep circulation. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 05 (27 Jan. 2021): Surface circulation, wind-driven circulation, Ekman pumping and transport. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 06 (27 Jan. 2021): Meridional overturning circulation (MOC), Effect of MOC on chemistry and heat transport. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • MCQ correction and comments (03 Feb. 2021): video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 07 (03 Feb. 2021): Effect of AMOC on climate: a paleoceanography perspective. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 08 (10 Feb. 2021, morning): Climate: marine archives, d13C proxy of ventilation and water-masses geometry. Lecture video (passwd required)
  • Lecture 09 (10 Feb. 2021, afternoon): Pa/Th: proxy of AMOC flux; Role of AMOC in abrupt climatic events. Lecture video (passwd required)

Documents for lectures:

  • ARGO float: how does an ARGO float work + see link in lecture 3
  • Particle simulation in a simple ocean circulation model
  • SST variations in the Arabian Sea (animated gif)
  • Coriolis movie

Lectures (Achim Wirth):

A Guided Tour through Physical Oceanography


Supports de cours années antérieures:

Supports de cours 2019-2020

Lectures (Sylvain Pichat):

  • Lecture 1 (08 Jan. 2020): Oceans and IPCC reports; Important parameters: T, S, P
  • Lecture 2 (15 Jan. 2020): How and what oceanographers measure in the oceans
  • Lecture 3 (15 Jan. 2020): Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) and surface currents
  • Lecture 4 (19 Feb. 2020): MOC and Paleoceanography (video here [passwd required])
  • Lectures 5, 6 and practicals 7 (videos because of Co-Vid19):

Correction CC T-S diagram (passwd required)

Comments and corrections "QCM" (passwd required) + erratum (gif)

Sediment archives: pdf with movies and full lecture video (passwd required)

Proxies in paleoceanography through examples:
1. d13C (pdf and video [passwd required])

2. (231Pa/230Th) (pdf and 2 videos [passwd required])

3. Abrupts climate events and the AMOC (pdf and video [passwd required])

4. Quizz

5. Complementary video on d13C: a proxy of deep-water ventilation

6. Complementary video on Heinrich events: was it cold or warm? [passwd required]


Lectures (Guillemette Ménot):

lecture 1 : Introduction marine geochemistry - Sources and sinks (22 Jan. 2020)

lecture 2 : Circulation and nutriments - TD (29 Jan. 2020)

lecture 3 : Biogeochemical cycles and climate (5 Feb. 2020)

Documents for 2018-19

Guillemette Ménot:

lecture 1 : chemistry of the oceans

  • Selection of articles for presentation
  • Digest from yoour presentations (to come)

lecture 2: repartition and processes

lecture 3: Si biogeochemical cycle

  • TD: Ocean Chemistry and Modes of Nutrient Distribution

lecture 4: Si/C cycles and Glacial-Interglacial changes

Ophélie Lodyga: lecture on dust, oceans and the C cycle

 

Documents for 2017-18

Sylvain Pichat:

  • Why is it important to study the oceans?
  • How do we access ocean parameters?
  • Characterization of the general ocean circulation, deep-water formation, AMOC
  • Quaternary paleoceanography: Accessing deep-water circulation (geometry, strength/flux, water sources) using paleoceanographic proxies: d13C and 231Pa/230Th

Guillemette Ménot:

lecture 1 : chemistry of the oceans

lecture 2 : biogeochemical cycle of S

Actions sur le document

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Département ENS
  • Directrice :
    Guillemette Ménot
  • Secrétaire :
    Emmanuelle Lousson
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